A Sample of Annotated Bibliography

In your academic journey you are likely to be given an assignment to write annotated bibliography. Before you even begin, it is important to understand what exactly an annotated bibliography is all about. An annotation entails a brief summary of journal articles, books, or website. The exercise should give adequate details to convince the reader concerning the relevancy of the summarized information. Although annotations are primarily descriptive, they can also be critical and evaluative. Provided below is an example of annotated bibliography that you can refer when working on your original paper.

A Sample of Annotated Bibliography

Cassel, R. N. (2001). A person-centered high school delinquency prevention program based on eight ‘hall-marks’ for success in a democracy. Education, 121(3), 431-435.

The authors of the article focused on a person-centered as juvenile delinquency prevention program. In addition, the authors assert that person-centered high school programs need to be carefully planned in order to present delinquency prevention among juveniles. The main objective of the program is to enhance increased development of 8 psychological dynamics that mostly absent among delinquent juveniles. The program involves adoption of competitive sport that accommodates every group of students. Further, the program advocates adoption of band and chorus that serves as esthetics for juveniles who have high cognitive dissonance. Debating art and chess might as well be adopted for effective implementation of this program. The program also necessitates services of diplomat from school of psychology to help in means of handling some of the psychological issues among the juveniles. Teachers and parents need also to be carefully involved. It is also important to develop self-esteem and coping skills, and encouraging youths to learn the democratic way of life for effective implementation of this program.

Naccarato, T., Brophy, M., & LaClair, K. (2013). Summer engagement for at-risk youth: preliminary outcomes from the new york state workforce development study. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 30(6), 519-533.

            The authors of the article consider high-risk youth engagement in pro-social activities as an effective means of minimizing their involvement in criminal justice system. The authors advocated Summer Youth Engagement Program in New York State (NYSYEP). The program main agenda is to engage youths in pro-social activities such as employment, recreational programs, educational programs and communal volunteer work. In addition, the authors indicate that other states and federal government has employed the program in an attempt to prevent juvenile delinquency. The article adopted exploratory technique that was based on previous findings. The findings of the article indicated that the number of hours that the youth got engaged reduced the chances of being rearrested by 2%. The authors noted that there is need to conduct research in a broad range to indicate whether there was the difference due to geographical disparity. However, the article utilized a small sample that is not sufficient for generalization.

Judy, C. T. (2014). Breaking free of the prison paradigm: Integrating restorative justice techniques into Chicago’s juvenile justice system. The Journal Of Criminal Law & Criminology. 104, (3), 635-666.

In her article, Judy focuses on the integration of restorative justice into juvenile delinquency justice system. The other argues that traditional approaches to punishment, for instance, detention does not sufficiently address the problems caused by juveniles. The central focus of the restorative program is to offer deliberative process between the offender and affected parties. The program offers three alternative methods that include offender-victim mediation. This allows the offender to understand the magnitude of his or her crime and a chance to change. The second alternative is a group conferencing where victim and offender are brought together among other key supporters. The third alternative as outlined by the author is the peace making that aims at facilitating dialogue between the offender and victim. The author states that a restored juvenile is not likely to recidivate. The program is also cost effective compared to other juvenile delinquency prevention mechanisms. The article concluded that Chicago should introduce restorative justice program as a means of preventing juvenile delinquency. The article was narrow as it only focused on the city of Chicago.

Mulford, C., & Redding, R. (2008). Training the parents of juvenile offenders: state of the art and recommendations for service delivery. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 17(5), 629-648.

            The authors of the article advocate for parent training as a means of preventing juvenile delinquency. They further assert that parent training is among the most effective methods of preventing delinquency among youths with conduct issues. In addition, the authors indicate there is minimal evidence to support parent-training programs with juvenile offenders. The program is effective especially when adopted together with other selected program components. The training program offered to teachers focuses on attitudinal alterations. The authors further indicate that parent training program to prevent juvenile delinquency is mainly based on social development.  Some of the focused studies in this article indicated effectiveness of parent training program. The authors concluded that this program is effective in preventing delinquency among the juveniles. The article is weak as there are fewer past studies on the topic. The strength of the article is that is broad as it does not narrow down to one group of parents.

Lelekov, V. A., & Kosheleva, E. V. (2008). On the prevention of juvenile crime. Russian Education & Society, 50(9), 68-83.

The authors indicate that juvenile relate crimes are among the most serious social problems. They also state that juvenile delinquency has not been completely addressed in our society. They further assert that the current issues cannot be solved through legal measures alone. As a result, the authors offer other prevention programs that included social measures that aim at offering youths and parents work in order to raise their standard. This measure attempts to combat juvenile delinquency. In addition, the authors advocate rising of citizens’ legal involvement through support of specialized civic formations engaged in delinquency prevention. Training specialists need to work with families and youths in attempt to combat crime. The other prevention measure of juvenile crime is individual prevention through parental control. As a result, there is a need to foster family institution. The authors came to a conclusion that to prevent juvenile delinquency it is crucial to detect youths and families that are faced with harmful challenges.

Eddy, J. M., Reid, J. B., & Fetrow, R. A. (2000). An elementary school-based prevention program targeting modifiable antecedents of youth delinquency and violence: Linking the interests of families and teachers (LIFT). Journal Of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 8(3), 165.

            The authors of this article focused on elementary school-based prevention program as a means of reducing youth delinquency and violence. The authors assert that delinquency among youths has been a problem in major cities of the Eastern America. In addition, the article advocates linkage of families’ and teacher’s interest in a prevention program towards juvenile delinquency. However, past studies indicated ineffectiveness of this intervention hence making the article weak due to lack of sufficient backing. The intended program targets to alter children and parents behaviors that are believed to lead to juvenile delinquency. Implementation of this program requires some components such as family involvement. The strength of the article lies in the fact that the authors focused on several elementary schools. The findings of the article indicated that the program has positively impacted juvenile delinquency. In addition, students under the program displayed fewer aggressive behaviors.

Morgan Cox & Betsy Matthews. (2007). Faith-based approaches for controlling the delinquency of juvenile offenders. Federal Probation, 71 (1) 123-134.

The authors focused on the effectiveness of the faith-based program for controlling the juvenile delinquency offenders across the community. The authors indicate that there is an inverse relationship between involvement in religion and delinquency among the youths. There are a number of studies in support of the program making the article suitable for the intended literature review. The authors assert that youths highly engaged in religion are not likely to be involved in crimes. Further, this youths experience minimal cases of depression and drug abuse. The findings of the article indicated that the faith-based program is selected as a means of creating a positive environment for social learning. The authors concluded that religious faith is a crucial component in the prevention of juvenile delinquency. The article is weak in the sense that the response rate was predominately Christian-oriented limiting generalization of the results.

Bilchik, S. (2000). Collaboration among federal agencies equals School Safety. Corrections Today, (1), 65-76.

The main focus of the article is a collaboration of federal agencies to offer a safe environment in schools. For the past years, there has been a reduction of juvenile related crimes in schools. Nevertheless, violence stills do occur within school grounds. Some of the juvenile delinquency committed with school involves bullying, prejudice and dating violence that adversely affects youth’s learning. The government has responded to these concerns through launch of several programs to confront juvenile delinquency within school grounds. One of the programs is implemented through the publication of guides on delinquency. The authors advocate for violence prevention program as means of youth development strategy. The program is supposed to as a protective mechanism against negative circumstances. The authors concluded that the success of this program is based on collaboration between child agencies and schools.  In addition, the article concluded that coordination between community-based firms and schools can support social controls among the youths. The strength of the article is that it relied on evidence collected from the ground. However, the article is weak in the sense that is not broad hence limiting generalization.

Koffman, S., Ray, A., Berg, S., Covington, L., Albarran, N. M., & Vasquez, M. (2009). Impact of a comprehensive whole child intervention and prevention program among youths at risk of gang involvement and other forms of delinquency. Children & Schools, 31(4), 239-245.

The authors of this article tried to examine intervention and prevention program among youths that are perceived to be at risk of gang involvement and among other forms of delinquency. The authors indicated that youths living in gang-ridden neighborhoods are likely to suffer mental health related disorder that is early indicators of delinquency. Consequently, the authors advocated a juvenile intervention and prevention program. The program considers three components of students live i.e. community, parents, and education. The program further focuses on variables that affect social, mental health outcomes and academic. The findings of the article indicated that these supportive interventions enable students to experience success in their academics and within the community. The authors concluded that the program will lead a healthy and positive attitude among the youths hence reducing juvenile delinquency cases. The study is weak in that it focused only on one institution hence limiting generalization of obtained results. Nevertheless, the strength of the article is that the article involved key stakeholders.

Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C., & Buehler, J. (2005). Scared straight and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. Scientific Review Of Mental Health Practice, 4(1), 48-54.

            The next article focused on scared straight program and other awareness programs meant to prevent juvenile delinquency. The advocate program by the authors involves well thought-out visits to prison facilities by juvenile delinquents or youths at high-risk of becoming delinquent. However, there have been questions about the effectiveness of this program in determent of juvenile delinquency. This raises questions about whether the findings of the study should be used hence making the article weak to some extent.  The findings of the study indicated that the there was no difference between control group and their counterparts. The authors concluded that despite the gloomy findings on the effectiveness of the program it is still used. The study is reliable in the sense that it was conducted in numerous states hence suitable for generalization.

Rhew, I. C., Brown, E. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Briney, J. S. (2013). Sustained effects of the communities that care system on prevention service system transformation. American Journal Of Public Health, 103(3), 529-535.

The authors of the article mainly examined whether the communities that care system could lead to reduced antisocial behaviors and drug abuse among other delinquents. The authors indicated that communities have failed to adopt effective interventions to prevent juvenile delinquency. The success of strategies to reduce juvenile delinquency depends on local coalitions. In other words, the advocated program relies on community’s effort to mobilize change. One of the past projects indicated that coalition based strategy demonstrated reduction in juvenile delinquency cases. The findings of the study indicated that community-based program is effective in the prevention of delinquent behaviors among youths. In addition, the findings indicated sustainability of this program in terms of altering antisocial behaviors among the youths. The authors concluded that implementation of this program has remarkable results in prevention of and reduction in youth problem behaviors. The article is reliable in that it covered a broad area i.e. 24 towns in United States.

Stewart, C., Rapp-Paglicci, L., & Rowe, W. (2009). Evaluating the efficacy of the prodigy prevention program across urban and rural locales. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(1), 65-75.

            The article evaluated the effectiveness of the prodigy prevention program in both rural and urban locales. The author asserts that the rate of arrested juvenile offenders has been increasing dramatically for the past ten years. As a result, the authors aimed to examine the effectiveness of prodigy cultural arts program for the youth at risk. Past researches indicate that juvenile youths are likely to abuse drugs or are likely to come from a family involved in criminal activities. This program aims at encouraging interpersonal skills as a means of reducing violent behaviors and anger. The program has started to demonstrate positive effects towards juvenile delinquency prevention. The findings of the study indicated youths who were participating in this program registered changes in anxiety/depression and suicidal thoughts. Youths in rural areas engaged in more delinquency and also experienced family issues. However, after adoption of this program they registered a reduction in delinquent behaviors, as well as, family issues. The article is weak in that it lacked follow-up data to determine if the positive effects were consistent.

Ozdemir, S. M. (2010). An examination of the educational programs held for juvenile delinquents in Turkey. Education, (3), 384-398.

            The authors aimed at examining educational programs that are provided in prisons for juvenile delinquents. The major risk factors associated with juvenile delinquency are aggression and antisocial behavior among others. These behaviors are further attributed to family’s socio status, parental pressure, and separation/divorce. Some of the education-based programs include juvenile closed prisons where they are transferred to separate areas concerning gender. Juvenile detention house, where subjected to rehabilitative training courses that can help them, acquire different professions. The program aims at preparing these juveniles for life after release, develop their personalities and lose tendency for delinquent behaviors. The findings of the study indicated that the majority of juvenile delinquents found the education-based program beneficial. The authors concluded that education-based program is effective in preventing juvenile delinquency. The results of the study might not be reliable since the study utilized youths from a single juvenile prison.

Arasteh, H., & Saeid Kashfi, S. (2013). Identifying prevention methods to reduce students’ delinquency in boys’ middle schools in Tehran. Journal Of Instructional Psychology, 40(1-4), 35-41.

The main focus of the article was to identify prevention approaches to minimize student’s delinquency in middle schools. Past studies indicated a strong correlation between low rates of delinquencies and prevention programs. One of the key delinquency prevention is based on school program. In other words, schools have a role to play towards combat of delinquency among juveniles. This type of juvenile delinquency prevention program is considered to be crucial. The findings of the article indicated that this program is an important component in a reduction of delinquencies among the middle school boys. The results of the study the program assist middle school boys to alter their antisocial behaviors. The authors concluded that restorative justice, people’s participation, citizenship education and assisting students to be crucial components in a reduction of delinquent behaviors among middle school boys. The article results are reliable for generalization as the study utilized adequate sample.

Cowin, J. A., & Stewart, J. C. (2002). Juvenile crime prevention: play by the rules–a new plan. Journal Of Correctional Education, 53(2), 74-76.

            The authors aimed to examine how law related education could help young people develop a positive attitude towards their community and laws. Through law related education students tend to learn crucial information regarding the legal system, laws, their responsibilities, and rights. Past study indicates students who participated in this program “play by the rules” had 38% in knowledge related to juvenile law. It is important to teach parents and community at large on the importance of utilizing this program. Once the community has learned and understood the law, they tend to set a community norm that models children. In return, this has a potential of reducing juvenile delinquency as children learn to live within a community that has minimal cases of crime. The article is reliable since the discussed program aims at developing a plan that focuses on the community through offering trainings regarding juvenile laws.     

References

  • Arasteh, H., & Saeid Kashfi, S. (2013). Identifying prevention methods to reduce students’ delinquency in boys’ middle schools in Tehran. Journal Of Instructional Psychology, 40(1-4), 35-41.
  • Bilchik, S. (2000). Collaboration among federal agencies equals School Safety. Corrections Today, (1), 65-76.
  • Cowin, J. A., & Stewart, J. C. (2002). Juvenile crime prevention: play by the rules–A new plan. Journal Of Correctional Education, 53(2), 74-76.
  • Cassel, R. N. (2001). A person-centered high school delinquency prevention program based on eight ‘hall-marks’ for success in a democracy. Education, 121(3), 431-435.
  • Eddy, J. M., Reid, J. B., & Fetrow, R. A. (2000). An elementary school-based prevention program targeting modifiable antecedents of youth delinquency and violence: Linking the interests of families and teachers (LIFT). Journal Of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 8(3), 165-176.
  • Judy, C. T. (2014). Breaking free of the prison paradigm: Integrating restorative justice techniques into chicago’s juvenile justice system. The Journal Of Criminal Law & Criminology. 104, (3), 635-666.
  • Koffman, S., Ray, A., Berg, S., Covington, L., Albarran, N. M., & Vasquez, M. (2009). Impact of a comprehensive whole child intervention and prevention program among youths at risk of gang involvement and other forms of delinquency. Children & Schools, 31(4), 239-245.
  • Lelekov, V. A., & Kosheleva, E. V. (2008). On the prevention of juvenile crime. Russian Education & Society, 50(9), 68-83.
  • Morgan Cox & Betsy Matthews. (2007). Faith-based approaches for controlling the delinquency of juvenile offenders. Federal Probation, 71 (1) 123-134.
  • Mulford, C., & Redding, R. (2008). Training the parents of juvenile offenders: state of the art and recommendations for service delivery. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 17(5), 629-648.
  • Naccarato, T., Brophy, M., & LaClair, K. (2013). Summer engagement for at-risk youth: preliminary outcomes from the New York state workforce development study. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 30(6), 519-533.
  • Ozdemir, S. M. (2010). An examination of the educational programs held for juvenile delinquents in Turkey. Education, (3), 384-398.
  • Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C., & Buehler, J. (2005). Scared straight and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. Scientific Review Of Mental Health Practice, 4(1), 48-54.
  • Rhew, I. C., Brown, E. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Briney, J. S. (2013). sustained effects of the communities that care system on prevention service system transformation. American Journal Of Public Health, 103(3), 529-535.
  • Stewart, C., Rapp-Paglicci, L., & Rowe, W. (2009). Evaluating the efficacy of the prodigy prevention program across urban and rural locales. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(1), 65-75.

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